Nippon Rinsho. 2003 Aug;61(8):1428-34
Kato H, Suzumura A.
Department of Neuroimmunology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University.
A variety of cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis(MS), either in induction phase and effector phase.
In order to interact with immune cells, the cells in the brain have to express MHC antigens which they do not usually express.
Cytokines such as IFN gamma, IL-3 and TNF alpha induce MHC antigen expression on neural cells.
IFN gamma also induces costimulatory molecule for antigen presentation and also induce IL-12, a critical cytokine in T helper cell differentiation, in microglia.
Although TNF alpha is a critical cytokines in effector phase, other cytokines and chemokines have also been shown to play roles on the development of inflammatory demyelination and gliosis.
In this chapter, we will review the cytokine profile of MS lesions.