Mov Disord 2002 Jul;17(4):726-34
Blakeley J, Jankovic J.
Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxDs) are involuntary, episodic movements that include paroxysmal kinesigenic (PKD), paroxysmal nonkinesigenic (PNKD), and paroxysmal hypnogenic (PHD) varieties.
Although most PxDs are primary (idiopathic or genetic), we found 17 of our 76 patients with PxD (22%) to have an identifiable cause for their PxD (10 men; mean age, 41.4 years).
Causes included peripheral trauma (in three patients), vascular lesions (in four), central trauma (in four), kernicterus (in two), multiple sclerosis (in one), cytomegalovirus encephalitis (in one), meningovascular syphilis (in one), and migraine (in one).
The latency from insult to symptom onset ranged from days (trauma) to 18 years (kernicterus), with a mean of 3 years.
Nine patients had PNKD, two had PKD, five had mixed PKD/PNKD, and one had PHD.
Hemidystonia was the most common expression of the paroxysmal movement disorder, present in 11 patients.
Both of the patients with PKD had symptom durations of <5 minutes.
Symptom duration ranged from 10 seconds to 15 days for PNKD and from 5 minutes to 45 minutes for mixed PKD/PNKD.
There were no uniformly effective therapies, but anticonvulsant drugs, clonazepam, and botulinum toxin injections were the most beneficial.
Awareness of the variable phenomenology and the spectrum of causes associated with secondary PxD will allow for more timely diagnosis and early intervention.
Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society