Neurol Neurochir Pol 2002 May-Jun;36(3):505-12
Bartosik-Psujek H, Stelmasiak Z.
Katedry i Kliniki Neurologii A.M. w Lublinie.
Traditionally, it was believed in MS, that axonal loss occurred in chronic lesions.
However, new findings suggest that axonal transection can begin very early in the course of multiple sclerosis and axonal damage was found in active and chronic active MS lesions, particularly in areas of acute inflammation and demyelination.
The mechanisms of axonal loss are uncertain, but may involve axonal degeneration secondary to demyelination, the action of inflammatory mediators and immune attack directed at axonal components.
Axonal destruction and it's progression, is the major cause of irreversible damage in the CNS and the increase of disability in MS patients.
Currently, new diagnostic methods (MRI, MR spectroscopy, magnetic transfer, histopathological and biochemical study) allow better to know the mechanisms of neuronal damage.