J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Sep;62(9):899-907
Hulshof S, van Haastert ES, Kuipers HF, van den Elsen PJ, De Groot CJ, van der Valk P, Ravid R, Biber K.
Research Institute Neurosciences Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
An important role for CX3CL1 in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has been suggested in recent publications.
In this study, we compared the expression of CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 in human brain tissue derived from control patients without neurological complications and in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
Results from this study demonstrate that CX3CL1 is constitutively expressed in human central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes in vivo and under basal conditions in human adult astrocyte cultures.
CX3CR1 is expressed on astrocytes and microglial cells both in vivo and in vitro.
Chemotaxis assay shows a functional response upon CX3CR1 signaling in microglial cells.
Although CX3CL1 expression is upregulated in cultured astrocytes in response to proinflammatory cytokines, no evidence for expression differences of CX3CL1 between control patients and MS patients was found.
Our data suggest that CX3CL1 has more general physiological functions, which occur also in the absence of proinflammatory conditions.