J Immunol. 2004 Jun 1;172(11):7169-76
Khademi M, Illes Z, Gielen AW, Marta M, Takazawa N, Baecher-Allan C, Brundin L, Hannerz J, Martin C, Harris RA, Hafler DA, Kuchroo VK, Olsson T, Piehl F, Wallstrom E.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
T cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecules (TIMs) comprise a recently described family of molecules expressed on T cells.
TIM-3 has been shown to be expressed on murine Th1 cell clones and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Th1-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
In contrast, association of TIM-1 polymorphisms to Th2-related airway hyperreactivity has been suggested in mice.
The TIM molecules have not been investigated in human Th1- or Th2-mediated diseases.
Using real-time (TaqMan) RT-PCR, we show that human Th1 lines expressed higher TIM-3 mRNA levels, while Th2 lines demonstrated a higher expression of TIM-1.
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells obtained from patients with multiple sclerosis revealed significantly higher mRNA expression of TIM-1 compared with controls.
Moreover, higher TIM-1 expression was associated with clinical remissions and low expression of IFN-gamma mRNA in cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells.
In contrast, expression of TIM-3 correlated well with high expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha.
These data imply the differential expression of human TIM molecules by Th1 and Th2 cells and may suggest their differential involvement in different phases of a human autoimmune disease.