Neurochirurgie 2003 May;49(2-3 Pt 2):256-62
Viel E, Pelissier J, Pellas F, Boulay C, Eledjam JJ.
Departement d'Anesthesie et Centre de la Douleur.
Peripheral nerve blockade is one of the therapeutic options for spasticity of various muscles.
Percutaneous nerve stimulation allows accurate location of nerves and neurolysis can be performed using intraneural injection of 65% ethanol or 5 to 12% phenol.
Spastic contraction of various muscle groups is a common source of pain and disability which prevents efficient rehabilitation.
Neurolytic blocks are possible in most of motor nerves of the upper and lower limbs and main indications are spastic sequelae of stroke and spinal trauma but also of multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy and chronic coma.
The use of percutaneous nerve stimulation allows accurate location and four nerves are more frequently treated: pectoral nerve loop, median, obturator and tibial nerves.
In patients with spasticity of the adductor thigh muscles, nerve blocks are performed via a combined approach using fluoroscopy and nerve stimulation to identify the obturator nerve.
No complications occur and minor side effects are transient painful phenomena during injection.
These approaches have proved to be accurate, fast, simple, highly successful and reproducible.
Percutaneous neurolytic procedures, should be performed as early as possible, as soon as spasticity becomes painful and disabling in patients with neurological sequelae of stroke, head trauma or any lesion of the motor neurons.