J Neuroimmunol 2002 May;126(1-2):161-71
Kouwenhoven M, Ozenci V, Tjernlund A, Pashenkov M, Homman M, Press R, Link H.
Neuroimmunology Unit, Division of Neurology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells (APC) that most efficiently initiate and control immune responses.
Migration processes of blood DC are crucial to exert their professional antigen-presenting functions.
Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMP) are proteolytic enzymes, which are considered to be key enzymes in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and mediators of cell migration.
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) are important regulators of MMP activity.
Here we investigate whether blood monocyte-derived immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC) express, produce and secrete functionally active MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and -2, and examine their involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS).
On mRNA level, we observed high numbers of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA expressing iDC in MS.
On protein level, high percentages of MMP-1, -2 and -9 expressing iDC by flow cytometry, and high MMP-1 secretion by Western blot together with high MMP-2 and -9 activities in iDC supernatants as studied with zymography were observed.
Similarly, MS is associated with high percentages of MMP-2 and -3 and of TIMP-1 expressing mDC by flow cytometry together with high MMP-3 secretion and high MMP-9 activity in culture supernatants.
Spontaneous migratory capacity of both iDC and mDC over ECM-coated filters was higher in MS compared to healthy controls (HC).In conclusion, blood monocyte-derived iDC and mDC express, produce and secrete several MMP and TIMP.
Alterations in these molecules as observed in MS may be functionally important for DC functioning.