J Immunol. 2004 Jul 1;173(1):157-63
Greve B, Vijayakrishnan L, Kubal A, Sobel RA, Peterson LB, Wicker LS, Kuchroo VK.
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Linkage analysis and congenic mapping in NOD mice have identified a susceptibility locus for type 1 diabetes, Idd5.1 on mouse chromosome 1, which includes the Ctla4 and Icos genes.
Besides type 1 diabetes, numerous autoimmune diseases have been mapped to a syntenic region on human chromosome 2q33.
In this study we determined how the costimulatory molecules encoded by these genes contribute to the immunopathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
When we compared levels of expression of costimulatory molecules on T cells, we found higher ICOS and lower full-length CTLA-4 expression on activated NOD T cells compared with C57BL/6 (B6) and C57BL/10 (B10) T cells.
Using NOD.B10 Idd5 congenic strains, we determined that a 2.1-Mb region controls the observed expression differences of ICOS.
Although Idd5.1 congenic mice are resistant to diabetes, we found them more susceptible to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55-induced EAE compared with NOD mice.
Our data demonstrate that higher ICOS expression correlates with more IL-10 production by NOD-derived T cells, and this may be responsible for the less severe EAE in NOD mice compared with Idd5.1 congenic mice.
Paradoxically, alleles at the Idd5.1 locus have opposite effects on two autoimmune diseases, diabetes and EAE.
This may reflect differential roles for costimulatory pathways in inducing autoimmune responses depending upon the origin (tissue) of the target Ag.