Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2002 Nov;42(11):1102-4
Department of Neurology, Nagoya National Hospital.
Diagnosis depends on the clinical manifestations, blood or cerebrospinal fluid study and MRI findings.
Acute and subacute intraparenchymal spinal cord disorders are due to vascular disorders or myelitis.
Spinal cord infarction is associated with dissecting aortic aneurysm, surgical clipping of aortic aneurysms, aortic atherosclerosis or hypotension from any cause.
Hematomyelia results from trauma, vascular malformations, vasculitis, or a coagulation disorder.
Acute infectious myelopathies result from direct invasion of the spinal cord by bacteria, parasite, or virus.
The cause of acute or subacute inflammatory disease include multiple sclerosis, Devic disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, SLE, or sarciodosis.
Sarcoidosis sometimes requires differential diagnosis with cord tumor.
Chronic intraparenchymal spinal cord disorders are due to syringomyelia, familial spastic paraplegia, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, adrenomyeloneuropathy, and vascular malformations.
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy present with progressive spastic paraplegia with bladder disturbance and has antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.
Diagnosis of adrenomyeloneuropathy is made by demonstration of elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids in plasma.
Vascular malformations are important lesions because they present a treatable cause of progressive myelopathy.