Curr Opin Neurol 2002 Jun;15(3):227-31
Hemmer B, Cepok S, Nessler S, Sommer N.
Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany.
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by demyelination and chronic inflammation of the central nervous system.
Extensive studies in the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis have suggested that multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder mediated by myelin-specific CD4 T cells secreting T helper type 1 cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
This concept has been widely used to develop new experimental therapies.
However, recent findings in both experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis question a simple CD4 T helper type 1 T cell paradigm and provide evidence for the role of various immune cells in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.
In this paper we review recent progress and discuss the implications for new therapeutic strategies.