Viral Immunol 2002;15(2):261-72
Glass WG, Chen BP, Liu MT, Lane TE.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine 92697-3900, USA.
Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a positive-strand RNA virus that is a member of the Coronaviridae family, reproducibly results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar to the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS).
MHV infection triggers a robust cell-mediated response in which both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are essential in controlling viral replication and spread.
However, viral clearance is incomplete and viral RNA and protein can persist within white matter tracts, areas of viral persistence are often associated with demyelinating lesions, and recent studies have indicated an important role for both T cells and macrophages in contributing to myelin destruction.
The molecular mechanisms governing leukocyte trafficking and accumulation within the CNS of MHV-infected mice are just now being understood and recent studies indicate that chemokines and chemokine receptors have an important role in this process.
This article will provide an overview on how these molecules regulate T cell and macrophage trafficking into the CNS of MHV-infected mice and illustrate the delicate balance that exists with regards to expression of chemokines and their receptors as it relates to both host defense and disease development.