J Immunol 2002 Jul 15;169(2):1000-6
Kerfoot SM, Kubes P.
Immunology Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is mediated by inflammatory cells recruited from the circulation to the CNS.
We used intravital microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of this recruitment.
No leukocyte rolling and very little adhesion was observed in healthy control mice.
In contrast, both rolling and adhesion was observed in brain postcapillary venules before onset of physical symptoms of EAE.
Rolling and adhesion remained elevated for 2 wk and returned to near normal levels by 5 wk postsymptom onset.
Consistent with a role for P-selectin in recruitment to the CNS, P-selectin protein was detected in the brains and spinal cords of EAE mice.
Expression was highest before symptom onset and decreased over the next 2 wk.
The importance of alpha(4) integrin increased with time as anti-alpha(4) integrin blocked approximately 20, 50, and 60% of leukocyte rolling 2 days before disease onset, 5 days and 2 wk postonset of symptoms, respectively, and 85% of rolling 5 wk postsymptoms.
Addition of anti-P-selectin to alpha(4) integrin Ab-treated mice blocked all remaining rolling at each time point.
Interestingly, however, alpha(4) integrin-mediated rolling appeared to be entirely dependent on P-selectin as anti-P-selectin alone was able to completely block all leukocyte rolling.
In the absence of rolling (with P-selectin Ab), a 70% reduction in adhesion was noted.
A very similar reduction was seen when mice were treated with alpha(4) integrin-blocking Ab.
In conclusion, we describe increased leukocyte trafficking in the brains of EAE mice with important overlapping roles for both P-selectin and alpha(4) integrin in mediating leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions.