J Neurobiol 2003 Feb 15;54(3):457-72
Frost EE, Nielsen JA, Le TQ, Armstrong RC.
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4799.
Acute demyelination of adult CNS, resulting from trauma or disease, is initially followed by remyelination.
However, chronic lesions with subsequent functional impairment result from eventual failure of the remyelination process, as seen in multiple sclerosis.
Studies using animal models of successful remyelination delineate a progression of events facilitating remyelination.
A universal feature of this repair process is extensive proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPs) in response to demyelination.
To investigate signals that regulate OP proliferation in response to demyelination we used murine hepatitis virus-A59 (MHV-A59) infection of adult mice to induce focal demyelination throughout the spinal cord followed by spontaneous remyelination.
We cultured glial cells directly from demyelinating and remyelinating spinal cords using conditions that maintain the dramatically enhanced OP proliferative response prior to CNS remyelination.
We identify PDGF and FGF2 as significant mitogens regulating this proliferative response.
Furthermore, we demonstrate endogenous PDGF and FGF2 activity in these glial cultures isolated from demyelinated CNS tissue.
These findings correlate well with our previous demonstration of increased in vivo expression of PDGF and FGF2 ligand and corresponding receptors in MHV-A59 lesions.
Together these studies support the potential of these pathways to function in vivo as critical factors in regulating remyelination.