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More MS news articles for February 2003

Development of the key behaviors change inventory: A traumatic brain injury behavioral outcome assessment instrument

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003 Feb;84(2):277-284
Kolitz BP, Vanderploeg RD, Curtiss G.
Departments of Psychology (Kolitz, Vanderploeg) and Psychiatry (Vanderploeg, Curtiss), University of South Florida, Tampa, FL; the James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Vanderploeg, Curtiss), Tampa, FL; and the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (Vanderploeg, Curtiss), Tampa, FL.


To describe the development and initial validation of a neurobehavioral outcome measure, the Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI), for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).


Scale construction and development, and validity study.


Large state university and postal survey.


Seventy-five volunteer undergraduate students and 25 volunteer collateral informants of individuals with TBI participated in the item-analysis phase.

Thirty members of the Brain Injury Association and 20 members of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society rated both an identified patient and an age- and gender-equated control in the validation phase.


Not applicable.


Content validity was examined through expert panel item sorts.

Scale internal consistencies were examined with the Cronbach alpha.

Construct validity was examined by comparing scale elevations between controls and 2 neurologic groups.


Item-analysis procedures resulted in 8 scales of 8 items each: inattention, impulsivity, unawareness of problems, apathy, interpersonal difficulties, communication problems, somatic difficulties, and emotional adjustment.

Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from.82 to.91.

Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant (P</=.001) differences in scale elevations among TBI, multiple sclerosis (MS), and control groups.

The TBI and MS groups scored significantly higher than the control group on all scales; a subset of KBCI scales discriminated between the 2 neurologic groups.


The KBCI was both sensitive and specific to typical behavioral changes after TBI, thus supporting its usefulness in rehabilitation settings.

Cross-validation and development of a normative database are future steps necessary in its development.