Rev Neurol 2003 Feb 1-15;36(1):264-71
New York Hospital Cornell Pediatrics, New York, EE.UU.
The differential diagnosis of acute loss of vision in children includes acute loss of vision due to retinal or optic nerve disease, and cortical blindness.
The retinal disorders which may be mis diagnosed as optic neuritis include Leber neuroretinitis, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and Stargardt macular dystrophy.
Retinal changes which evolve in neuroretinitis, and the pseudopapilledema in Leber heredity optic neuropathy are helpful in differentiating these disorders from optic neuritis.
Stargardt macular dystrophy, a disorder associated with a variety of mutations, may be mis diagnosed as psychogenic visual loss due to the early normal appearance of the retina, and the loss of vision over a period of weeks.
The differentiation of optic neuritis from anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), depends upon the initial appearance of the optic disc (in AION either hyperemia due to reperfusion, or swelling and pallor if total infarction has occurred).
The authors have described children with abrupt loss of vision during renal dialysis, whose risk factors for AION included systemic hypotension and intra ocular hypertension.
Children with vigorous treatment of accelerated hypertension, and children with migraine and pro thrombotic disorders have also incurred AION.
Thus, AION should be suspected when acute loss of vision occurs in association with certain ocular and systemic risk factors.
In children capable of cooperating for visual field examination, the typical change in AION is an altitudinal defect, while optic neuritis it is a central scotoma.
The association of optic neuritis with multiple sclerosis, DeVic disease, and with acute demyelinating1 encephalomyelitis require special consideration in regard to treatment and prognosis.
Acute loss of vision due to cerebral cortical insults involves a large differential diagnosis which includes vascular, metabolic and infective disease; as well as disorders causing transitory blindness such as seizures and migraine