Nature 2002 Jan 31;415(6871):536-41
Monney L, Sabatos CA, Gaglia JL, Ryu A, Waldner H, Chernova T, Manning S, Greenfield EA, Coyle AJ, Sobel RA, Freeman GJ, Kuchroo VK.
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Activation of naive CD4(+) T-helper cells results in the development of at least two distinct effector populations, Th1 and Th2 cells.
Th1 cells produce cytokines (interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lymphotoxin) that are commonly associated with cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular pathogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and induction of organ-specific autoimmune diseases.
Th2 cells produce cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) that are crucial for control of extracellular helminthic infections and promote atopic and allergic diseases.
Although much is known about the functions of these two subsets of T-helper cells, there are few known surface molecules that distinguish between them.
We report here the identification and characterization of a transmembrane protein, Tim-3, which contains an immunoglobulin and a mucin-like domain and is expressed on differentiated Th1 cells.
In vivo administration of antibody to Tim-3 enhances the clinical and pathological severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th1-dependent autoimmune disease, and increases the number and activation level of macrophages.
Tim-3 may have an important role in the induction of autoimmune diseases by regulating macrophage activation and/or function.