J Virol 2003 Jan;77(1):191-8
Glass WG, Lane TE.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3900.
Intracranial infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar in pathology to the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS).
CD4(+) T cells are important in amplifying demyelination by attracting macrophages into the central nervous system (CNS) following viral infection; however, the mechanisms governing the entry of these cells into the CNS are poorly understood.
The role of chemokine receptor CCR5 in trafficking of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells into the CNS of MHV-infected mice was investigated.
CD4(+) T cells from immunized CCR5(+/+) and CCR5(-/-) mice were expanded in the presence of the immunodominant epitope present in the MHV transmembrane (M) protein encompassing amino acids 133 to 147 (M133-147).
Adoptive transfer of CCR5(+/+)-derived CD4(+) T cells to MHV-infected RAG1(-/-) mice resulted in CD4(+)-T-cell entry into the CNS and clearance of virus from the brain.
These mice also displayed robust demyelination correlating with macrophage accumulation within the CNS.
Conversely, CD4(+) T cells from CCR5(-/-) mice displayed an impaired ability to traffic into the CNS of MHV-infected RAG1(-/-) recipients, which correlated with increased viral titers, diminished macrophage accumulation, and limited demyelination.
Analysis of chemokine receptor mRNA expression by M133-147-expanded CCR5(-/-)-derived CD4(+) T cells revealed reduced expression of CCR1, CCR2, and CXCR3, indicating that CCR5 signaling is important in increased expression of these receptors, which aid in trafficking of CD4(+) T cells into the CNS.
Collectively these results demonstrate that CCR5 signaling is important to migration of CD4(+) T cells to the CNS following MHV infection.